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Complete Publication List




Polly, P. D. and O. B. Mock.  2018 (online 2017).  Heritability: the link between development and the microevolution of molar tooth form.  Historical Biology, 30: 53-63. (doi 10.1080/08912963.2017.1337760).

Phillips, R. P., Fei, S., Brandt, L., Polly, P. D., Zollner, P., Saunders, M. R., Clay, K., Iverson, L., Widhalm, M., and J. S. Dukes. 2018. Indiana’s Future Forests: A Report from the Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment. Purdue Climate Change Research Center. West Lafayette, Indiana.

Parzer, H., P. D. Polly, and A. P. Moczek. 2018. The evolution of trait size and shape: insights from the genitalia of dung beetles. Development, Genes, and Evolution, 228: 83-93. (doi: 10.1007/s00427-018-0602-2).

Zimmerman, A. N., C. C. Johnson, and P. D. Polly. 2018. Taxonomic and evolutionary pattern revisions resulting from geometric morphometric analysis of Pennsylvanian Neognathodus conodonts, Illinois Basin. Paleobiology. (doi: 10.1017/pab.2018.28).


Polly, P. D., J. Fuentes-Gonzales, A. M. Lawing, A. K. Bormet, and R. G. Dundas.  2017.  Clade sorting has a greater effect than local adaptation on ecometric patterns in Carnivora.  Evolutionary Ecology Research, 18: 61-95.

Polly, P. D. and G. J. Motz.  2017.  Patterns and processes in morphospace: geometric morphometrics of three-dimensional objects.  In: L. Tapanila and I. Rahman (eds.), Virtual Paleontology. The Paleontological Society Papers 22: 71-99. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Gomez-Robles, A., J. B. Smaers, R. L. Holloway, P. D. Polly, and B. Wood.  2017. Brain enlargement and dental reduction were not linked in hominin evolution.  PNAS, 114: 468-473(doi: 10.1073/pnas.1608798114). 
[PDF][Supplemental file]

Barnosky, AD, EA Hadly, P Gonzalez, JJ Head, PD Polly, AM Lawing, JT Eronen, D Ackerly, K Alex, E Biber, J Blois, J Brashares, G Ceballos, E Davis, G Dietl, R Dirzo, H Doremus, M Fortelius, H Greene, J Hellmann, T Hickler, ST Jackson, M Kemp, P Koch, C Kremen, E Lindsey, C Looy, CR Marshall, C Mendenhall, A Mulch, A Mychajliw, C Nowak, U Ramakrishnan, J Schnitzler, K Das Shrestha, K Solari, L Stegner, MA Stegner, NC Stenseth, MH Wake, and Z. Zhang.  2017.  Merging paleontology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems.  Science, 355: eaah4787.

Polly P.D.  2017.  Morphometrics and evolution: the challenge of crossing rugged phenotypic landscapes with straight paths. Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki I Selektsii (=Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding), 21: 452-461. (doi 10.18699/VJ17.264)

Schnitzler, J., C. Theis, P. D. Polly, and J. T. Eronen.  2017.  Fossils matter - understanding modes and rates of trait evolution in Musteloidea (Carnivora).  Evolutionary Ecology Research, 18: 187-200.


Polly, P. D., C. T. Stayton, E. R. Dumont, S. E. Pierce, E. J. Rayfield, and K. Angielczyk. 2016. Combining geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis with evolutionary modeling: towards a synthesis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1111225: 1-29. (doi: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1111225).
[PDF][Supplemental files in zip format]

Polly, P. D., J. T. Eronen, A. M. Lawing, and J. Schnitzler. 2016. Processes of ecometric patterning: modelling functional traits, environments, and clade dynamics in deep time. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 118: 39-63. (doi: 10.1111/bij.12716)
[PDF][Supplemental files in zip format, 30 Mb]

Polly, P. D.  2016.  Quantitative genetics and macroevolution.  In R. M. Kliman (ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology.  Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam. Pp. 409-417.

Polly, P. D.  2016.  Quantitative genetics provides predictive power for paleontological studies of morphological evolution.  PNAS, 113: 9142-9144.  (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610454113)

Lawing, A. M., J. T. Eronen, J. L. Blois, C. Graham, and P. D. Polly.  2016.  Community functional trait composition and the effects of non-ecological processes.  Ecography, 39: 1-13. (doi: 10.1111/ecog.01986).

Lawing, A. M., P. D. Polly, D. K. Hews, and E. P. Martins. 2016. Including fossils in phylogenetic climate reconstructions: a deep time perspective on the climatic niche evolution and diversification of Spiny Lizards (Sceloperus). American Naturalist, 188: 133-148. (doi: 10.1086/687202).

Goswami, A., M. Randau, P. D. Polly, V. Weisbecker, C. V. Bennett, L. Hautier, and M. R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2016. Do developmental constraints and high integration limit the evolution of the marsupial oral apparatus? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 56: 369-372 (doi: 10.1093/icb/icw039). 


Head, J. J. and P. D. Polly. 2015. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function. Nature, 520: 86-89. (doi: 10.1038/nature14042)
[Nature][Supplemental files]

Polly, P. D. and J. J. Head. 2015. Measuring Earth-life transitions: ecometric analysis of functional traits from late Cenozoic vertebrates. In P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, and D. L. Fox (eds.), Earth-Life Transitions: Paleobiology in the Context of Earth System Evolution. The Paleontological Society Papers, 21: 21-46. Yale Press, New Haven, CT.

Polly, P. D., A. Cardini, E. B. Davis, and S. Steppan. 2015. Marmot evolution and global change in the past 10 million years. Pp. 246-276 in P. G. Cox and L. Hautier (eds.), Evolution of the Rodents: Advances in Phylogeny, Palaeontology and Functional Morphology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Polly, P.D. 2015. Gene networks, occlusal clocks, and functional patches: new understanding of pattern and process in the evolution of the dentition. Odontology, 103: 117-125. (doi: 10.1007/s10266-015-0208-3)

Cardini, A., P.D. Polly, R. Dawson, and N. Milne. 2015. Why the long face? Kangaroos and wallabies follow the same 'rule' of cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA) as placentals. Evolutionary Biology, 42: 169-176. (doi: 10.1007/s11692-015-9308-9)

Aguilar-Medrano, R., H. Reyes-Bonilla, and P. D. Polly.  2015.  Adaptive radiation of damselfish (Perciformes, Pomacentridae) in the eastern Pacific.  Marine Biology, 162: 2291-2303.

Polly, P. D. 2015. The antecedents of punctuated equilibrium. Review of Eternal Ephemera by Niles Eldredge. Evolution, 69: 3021-3022.

Ksepka, D. T., J. F. Parham, J. F. Allman, M. J. Benton, M. T. Carrano, K. A. Cranston, P. C. J. Donoghue, J. J. Head, E. J. Hermsen, R. B. Irmis, W. G. Joyce, M. Kohli, K. S. Lamm, D. Leehr, J. S. L. Patané, P. D. Polly, M. J. Phillips, N. A. Smith, N. D. Smith, M. Van Tuinen, J.L. Ware, and R.C.M. Warnock. 2015. The Fossil Calibration Database, a new resource for divergence dating. Systematic Biology, 64: 853-859.


Goswami, A., J. B. Smaers, C. Soligo, and P. D. Polly. 2014. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: from development to deep time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369: 20130254. (doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0254)

Polly, P. D. 2014. Trait-based extinction catches the Red Queen napping during the Cambrian. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA,111: 16240-16241. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1419138111).

Polly, P. D. and S. Sarwar. 2014. Extinction, extirpation, and exotics: effects on the correlation between traits and environment at the continental level. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 51: 209-226.

Polly, P. D. 2014. Issues in Paleobiology. In: M. Sánchez-Villagra and N. MacLeod (eds), Issues in Paleobiology. Scidinge Hall Verlag: Zürich, Switzerland.


Gómez-Robles, A., J. M. Bermúdez de Castro, J.-L. Arsuaga, E. Carbonell, and P. D. Polly. 2013. No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 110: 18196-18201. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1302653110)

Rödder D., A. M. Lawing, M. Flecks, F. Ahmadzadeh, J. Dambach, J. O. Engler, J. C. Habel, T. Hartmann, D. Hörnes, F. Ihlow, K. Schidelko, D. Stiels, and P. D. Polly. 2013 Evaluating the Significance of Paleophylogeographic Species Distribution Models in Reconstructing Quaternary Range-Shifts of Nearctic Chelonians. PLoS ONE 8(10): e72855. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072855)
[Open Access] [Animated Paleophylogeographic Maps]

Grossnickle, D.M. and P.D. Polly. 2013. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 280: 20132110 (doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2110)
[PDF] [Supplemental Data]

Cardini, A. and P.D. Polly. 2013. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form. Nature Communications, 4, art. 2458: 1-7.
[PDF] [Movie 1] [Movie 2] [Movie 3] [Movie 4]

Polly, P.D., A.V. Polyakov, V.B. Ilyashenko, S.S. Onischenko, T.A. White, N.A. Shchipanov, N.S. Bulatova, S. Pavlova, P.M. Borodin, and J.B. Searle. 2013. Phenotypic variation across chromosomal hybrid zones of the Common shrew (Sorex araneus) indicates reduced gene flow. PLoS One, 8(7): e67455. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067455
[Open Access]

Polly, P. D. 2013. Evolution: Stuck between the teeth. Nature, 497: 325–326. doi:10.1038/nature12099

Polly, P. D., A. M. Lawing, A.-C. Fabre, and A. Goswami. 2013. Phylogenetic principal components analysis and geometric morphometrics. Hystrix, 24: 1-9. [PDF]

Smith, M.R. and P.D. Polly.  2013.  A reevaluation of the Harrodsburg Crevice Fauna (Late Pleistocene of Indiana, USA) and the climatic implication of its mammals.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 410-420. [PDF]

Uhen, M.D., A.D. Barnosky, B. Bills, J. Blois, M.T. Carrano, M.A. Carrasco, G.M. Erickson, J.T. Eronen, M. Fortelius, R.W. Graham, E.C. Grimm, M.A. O’Leary, A. Mast, W.H. Piel, P.D. Polly, and L.K. Säilä.  2013.  From card catalogs to computers:  databases in vertebrate paleontology.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 13-28. [PDF]

Topalov, K., A. Schimmelmann, P.D. Polly, P.E. Sauer, and M. Lowry. 2013. Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen δ2H.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 111: 88-104.


Goswami, A., P.D. Polly, O.B. Mock, and M.R. Sánchez Villagra.  2012.  Shape, variance, and integration during craniogenesis: contrasting marsupial and placental mammals.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 862-872.

Lawing, A.M., J.J. Head, and P.D. Polly.  2012.  The ecology of morphology:  the ecometrics of locomotion and macroenvironment in North American snakes.  Pp. 117-146 in J. Louys (ed), Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation.  Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg (doi:  10.1007/978-3-642-25038-5_7).
[PDF] [Supplemental Appendix]

Lawing, A. M., J. M. Meik, and P.D. Polly.  2012. Climate and competition shape species borders: a study of Panamint (Crotalus stephensi) and Speckled (Crotalus mitchellii) Rattlesnakes.  ISRN Zoology, 528745: 1-6.

Gómez-Robles, A. and P.D. Polly.  2012.  Morphological integration in the hominin dentition:  evolutionary, developmental, and functional factors.  Evolution, 66: 1024-1043doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01508.x

Topalov, K., A. Schimmelmann, P.D. Polly, and P.E. Sauer.  2012.  Stable isotopes applications in bone collagen, with emphasis on deuterium/hydrogen ratios.  Pp. 141-162 in C.J.R. Verbeek (ed), Products and Applications of Biopolymers.  InTech: Rijeka, Croatia.

Polly, P.D. 2012. Measuring the evolution of body size in mammals.  PNAS, 109: 4027-4028. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201030109)

Polly, P. D. 2012. Movement adds bite to the evolutionary morphology of mammalian teeth. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 69, 1-3.


Lawing, A. M. and P.D. Polly.  2011.  Pleistocene climate, phylogeny, and climate envelope models: an integrative approach to better understand species' response to climate change.  PLoS ONE, 16: e28554
[PDF] [Online animated models of geographic distributions]

Polly, P.D., J.T. Eronen, M. Fred, G.P. Dietl, V. Mosbrugger, C. Scheidegger, D.C. Frank, J. Damuth, N.C. Stenseth & M. Fortelius. 2011. History matters: ecometrics and integrative climate change biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278: 1121-1130. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2233)

Polly, P.D. and J.T. Eronen.  2011.  Mammal associations in the Pleistocene of Britain:  implications of ecological niche modelling and a method for reconstrucing palaeoclimate. Pp. 279-304 in N. Ashton, S. G. Lewis, and C. Stringer (eds.), The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain.  Elsevier.

Polly, P.D. and C.B. Stringer.  2011.  The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain (AHOB) Database.  In R. Macchiarelli and G-C. Weniger (ed.) Pleistocene Databases: Acquisition, Storing, SharingWissenschaftliche Schriften des Neanderthal Museums, 4: 51-60.

Polly, P.D., L. Killick, M. Ruddy.  2011. Using left-right asymmetry to estimate non-genetic variability in vole teeth (Arvicolinae, Muridae, Rodentia).  Palaeontologia Electronica, 14.3.41A.

Johnson, L.J., J.A. Cotton, C.P. Lichtenstein, G.S. Elgar, R.A. Nichols, P.D. Polly, and S.C. Le Comber. 2011.  Stops making sense: translational trade-offs and stop codon reassignment.  BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 227.  (doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-227)

Bose, R., C. L. Schneider, L. R. Leighton, and P. D. Polly. 2011. Influence of atrypid morphological shape on Devonian episkeletobiont assemblages from the lower Genshaw Formation of the Traverse Group of Michigan: a geometric morphometric approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 310: 427-441.

Ksepka, D.T., M.J. Benton, M.T.Carrano, M.A. Gandolfo, J.J. Head, E.J. Hermsen, W.G. Joyce, K.S. Lamm, J.S.L. Patané, M.J. Phillips, P.D. Polly, J.L. Ware, R.C.M. Warnock, M. van Tuinen, and J.F. Parham.  2011.  Synthesizing and databasing fossil calibrations: divergence dating and beyond.  Biology Letters, (doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0356).


Polly, P.D.  2010. Tiptoeing through the trophics: geographic variation in carnivoran locomotor ecomorphology in relation to environment.  Pp. 374-410 in A. Goswami and A. Friscia (eds.), Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function.
[PDF] [Grid Data]

Eronen, J.T., P.D. Polly, M. Fred, J. Damuth, D.C. Frank, V. Mosbrugger, C. Scheidegger, N.C. Stenseth, and M. Fortelius. 2010. Ecometrics: The traits that bind the past and present together.Integrative Zoology, 5: 88-101.

Goswami, A. and P.D. Polly. 2010 . Methods for studying morphological integration, modularity and covariance evolution. Pp. 213-243 in J. Alroy and G. Hunt (eds.), Quantitative Methods in Paleobiology. Paleontological Society Short Course, October 30th, 2010. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 16.
[PDF] [see Software page for accompanying Mathematica add-in]

Goswami, A. and P.D. Polly. 2010. The influence of character correlations on phylogenetic analyses: a  case study of the carnivoran cranium. Pp. 141-164 in A. Goswami and A. Friscia (eds.), Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function. Cambridge University Press.

Goswami, A. and P. D. Polly. 2010. The influence of modularity on cranial morphological disparity in Carnivora and Primates (Mammalia). PLoS One, 5, e9517: 1-8.

Lawing, A.M. and P.D. Polly. 2010. Geometric morphometrics:  recent applications to the study of evolution and development.  Journal of Zoology, 280: 1-7.

Cardini, A., S. Elton, J.A.F. Diniz-Filho, and P.D. Polly. 2010. Spatial data analysis and ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics: clines in skull size and shape in a widespread African arboreal monkey. Pp. 191-217 in A.M.T. Elewa (ed), Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Volume 124. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [PDF]

Bose, R., C. Schneider, P. D. Polly, and M. M. Yacobucci. 2010. Ecological Interactions between Rhipidomella (Orthides, Brachiopoda) and its endoskeletobionts and predators in the Middle Devonian Dundee Formation of Ohio, USA. Palaios, 25: 196-208. [PDF]

Poroshin, E.A., P.D. Polly, and J.M. Wójcik.  2010.  Climate and morphological change on decadal scales:  Multiannual variation in the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.) in northeast Russia.  Acta Theriologica, 55: 193-202. [PDF]


Head, J.J., J.I. Bloch, A.K. Hastings, J.R. Bourque, E. Cadena, F. Herrera, P.D. Polly, and C.A. Jaramillo.  2009.  Giant boine snake from a Paleocene Neotropical rainforest indicates hotter past equatorial temperatures.  Nature, 457: 715-718. 
[Paper] [Supplementary Information] [Matt Huber's News & Views]

Cardini A., D. Nagorsen, P. O'Higgins, P.D. Polly, R.W. Thorington Jr., and P. Tongiorgi. 2009. Detecting biological distinctiveness using geometric morphometrics: an example case from the Vancouver Island marmot. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, 21: 209-223. [PDF]

Schutz, H., P.D. Polly, J.D. Krieger and R.P. Guralnick.  2009.  Differential sexual dimorphism of body regions:  a case study examining the cranium and pelvis of Gray foxes (Urocyon).  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 96: 339-353. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2008. Adaptive Zones and the Pinniped Ankle: A 3D Quantitative Analysis of Carnivoran Tarsal Evolution.  Pp. 165-194 in (E. Sargis and M. Dagosto, Eds.) Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay.  Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [PDF] [PowerPoint file with animated figures]

Polly, P.D.  2008.  Developmental dynamics and G-matrices:  Can morphometric spaces be used to model evolution and development?  Evolutionary Biology, 35: 83-96. DOI 10.1007/s11692-008-9020-0. [PDF]

Atar, M., R. Yasmin, R. Sharma, S.C. Le Comber, P. Verry, and P.D. Polly.  2008.  Of mice and mutations:  phenotypic effects of the diabetic db/db and ob/ob mutations on the skull and teeth of mice.  European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 9: 37-40. [PDF]

Polly, P.D. and N. Macleod..  2008.  Locomotion in fossil carnivora: an application of eigensurface analysis for morphometric comparison of 3D surfaces. Palaeontologia Electronica, 11.2.8A. []


Polly, P.D.  2007.  Development with a Bite.  News & Views.  Nature, 449: 413-415. [PDF] [Data and Supplemental Figures]

Gündüz, İ, M Jaarola, C. Tez, C. Yeniyurt, P.D. Polly, and J. B. Searle.  2007.  Spermophilus taurensis Günduz et al. 2007 and S. torosensis Özkurt et al., 2007 (Scuiridae, Rodentia) are synonyms for the same species of Ground squirrel from the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey.  Zootaxa, 1663: 67-68. [PDF]

Cardini, A., R.W. Thorington, Jr., and P.D. Polly.  2007.  Evolutionary acceleration in the most endangered mammal of Canada: speciation and divergence in the Vancouver Island marmot (Rodentia, Sciuridae).  Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20: 1833-1846. [PDF]

Head, J.J. and P.D. Polly. 2007.  Dissociation of somatic growth from segmentation drives gigantism in snakes.  Biology Letters, 3: 296-298. [PDF]

Gündüz, İ, M Jaarola, C. Tez, C. Yeniyurt, P.D. Polly, and J. B. Searle.  2007.  Multigenic and morphometric differentiation of ground squirrels (Spermophilus, Sciuridae, Rodentia) in Anatolia, with a description of a new species.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43: 916-935. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2007. Phylogeographic differentiation in Sorex araneus: morphology in relation to geography and karyotype. Russian Journal of Theriology, 6: 73-84. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2007. Limbs in mammalian evolution. Chapter 15, pp. 245-268, in Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and Transformation, Brian K Hall (ed.). University of Chicago Press: Chicago. [PDF]

Wójcik, J. M., P. D. Polly, A. M. Wójcik, and M. D. Sikorski.  2007.  Epigenetic variation of the common shrew, Sorex araneus, in different habitats.  Russian Journal of Theriology, 6: 43-49. [PDF]


Polly, P. D., G. D. Wesley-Hunt, R. E. Heinrich, G. Davis, and P. Houde. 2006. Earliest known carnivoran auditory bulla and support for a recent origin of crown-group Carnivora (Eutheria, Mammalia). Palaeontology, 49: 1019-1027. [PDF] [Supplementary Movie Files][Nexus file for phylogenetic analysis]

Polly, P.D. 2006. Genetics, development, and palaeontology interlock. Heredity, 96: 206-207. [PDF]

Wójcik, A. M., P. D. Polly, M. D. Sikorski, and J. M. Wójcik. 2006. Selection in a cycling population: differential response among skeletal traits. Evolution, 60: 1925-1935. [PDF]

Rychlik, L., G. Ramalhinho, and P. D. Polly. 2006. Response to competition and environmental factors: skull, mandible, and tooth shape in Polish Water shrews (Neomys, Soricidae, Mammalia). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 44: 339-351. [PDF]


Caumul, R. and P. D. Polly. 2005. Phylogenetic and environmental components of morphological variation: skull, mandible and molar shape in marmots (Marmota, Rodentia). Evolution, 59: 2460-2472. [PDF]

Polly, P.D. 2005. Development, Geography, and Sample Size in P matrix evolution: molar-shape change in island populations of Sorex araneus. Evolution and Development, 7(1): 29-41. [PDF]

Polly, P.D., S.C. Le Comber, and T.M. Burland. 2005. On the occlusal fit of tribosphenic molars: Are we underestimating species diversity in the Mesozoic? Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 12: 285-301. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2004. On the simulation of the evolution of morphological shape: multivariate shape under selection and drift. Palaeontologia Electronica, 7.2.7A: 28pp, 2.3MB. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and J. J. Head. 2004. Maximum-likelihood identification of fossils: taxonomic identification of Quaternary marmots (Rodentia, Mammalia) and identification of vertebral position in the pipesnake Cylindrophis (Serpentes, Reptilia). In: Elewa A. M. T. (ed.): Morphometrics-Applications in Biology and Paleontology. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. Pp. 197-222. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2003. Paleophylogeography of Sorex araneus: molar shape as a morphological marker for fossil shrews. Mammalia, 68: 233-243. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2003. Paleophylogeography: the tempo of geographic differentiation in marmots (Marmota). Journal of Mammalogy, 84: 369-384. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. and R. L. Spang.  2002.  History of paleontology.  Pp. 69-97 in B. S. Baigrie (ed.), History of Modern Science and Mathematics, Vol. 4, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2002. Phylogenetic tests for differences in shape and the importance of divergence times: Eldredge's enigma explored. In: N. MacLeod and P. Forey (eds.), Morphology, Shape, and Phylogenetics, Taylor and Francis, Inc., pp. 220-246. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2001. Paleontology and the comparative method: Ancestral node reconstructions versus observed node values. American Naturalist, 157: 596-609. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2001. On morphological clocks and paleophylogeography: Towards a timescale for Sorex hybrid zones. Genetica, 112/113: 339-357. [PDF]

Polly, P. D., J. J. Head, and M. J. Cohn. 2001. Testing modularity and dissociation: the evolution of regional proportions in snakes (Serpentes, Vertebrata), pp. 305-335 in: M. Zelditch (ed.), Beyond Heterochrony: The Evolution of Development. John Wiley & Sons. [PDF]

Kordikova, E. G., P. D. Polly, V. A. Alifanov, Z. Rocek, G. F. Gunnell, and A. O Averianov. 2001. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary microvertebrates from the North Eastern Aral Sea Region of Kazakhstan. Journal of Paleontology, 75: 390-400. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2000. Development and evolution occlude: evolution of development in mammalian teeth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 97: 14019-14021. [PDF]

Mathur, A. K. and P. D. Polly. 2000. The evolution of enamel microstructure: How important is amelogenin? Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 7: 23-42. [PDF]


Polly, P. D.  1999.  Selection. In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1084-1086. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Ivan F. Schmalhausen.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1068-1069. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Ivan I. Schmalhausen. In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1069-1070. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Creodonta.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 316-317. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Alpheus Hyatt.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 591-59. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 1998. Cope's Rule. Science, 282(5386): 50-51. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1998. Variability, selection, and constraints: development and evolution in viverravid (Carnivora, Mammalia) molar morphology. Paleobiology, 24: 409-429. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1998. Variability in mammalian dentitions: size-related bias in the coefficient of variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 64: 83-99. [PDF]


Polly, P. D.  1997.  Ancestry and species definition in paleontology: a stratocladistic analysis of Viverravidae (Carnivora, Mammalia) from Wyoming.  Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan30: 1-53. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1997.  Cross-domain database searching at The Natural History Museum.  ASLIB Handbook of Special Librarianship and Information Work, 7th Edition, pp. 441-448.


Polly, P. D.  1996.  The skeleton of Gazinocyon vulpeculus n. gen. and comb. (Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta) and the cladistic relationships of Hyaenodontidae (Eutheria, Mammalia).  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16: 303-319. [PDF][Nexus File for Phylogenetic Analysis][Hennig86 File for Phylogenetic Analysis]

Holroyd, P. A., E. L. Simons, T. M. Bown, P. D. Polly, and M. J. Krause.  1996.  New Records of Terrestrial Mammals from the Upper Eocene Qasr El Sagha Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt.  Palaeovertebrata, 25: 175-192. [PDF]


Padian, K., D. Lindberg, and P. D. Polly.  1994.  Cladistics and the fossil record: the uses of history.  Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 22: 63-91. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. and B. Lange-Badré.  1993.  A new genus Eurotherium (Mammalia, Creodonta) in reference to taxonomic problems with some Eocene hyaenodontids from Eurasia.  Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences (Paris), série II, 317: 991-996. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1993.  Hyaenodontidae (Creodonta, Mammalia) from the early Eocene Four Mile Fauna and their biostratigraphic implications.  PaleoBios, 14(4): 1-10. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1993. Hyaenodontidae (Creodonta, Mammalia) and the Position of Systematics in Evolutionary Biology. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley. [PDF]



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